Terms starting with G

Gender-based Eligibility

Gender-based eligibility is a type of eligibility criteria that indicates whether eligibility to participate in a clinical study is based a person's self-representation of gender identity or gender. Gender is distinct from sex. (CTG)


A gene is a part of the DNA in cells that controls the physical development, behavior, characteristics, etc. of an individual, and as such can be associated with disease or susceptibility to disease. Gene's are passed from parent to offspring, however they can also be affected and changed due to a variety of environmental or treatment exposures.

Gene Mutation

A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in a gene. Some gene mutations are inherited. Some happen over time due to damage (e.g., exposure to tobacco smoke or sun), and some happen spontaneously as we age. The body should repair these mutations, but in some cases these mutations result in health issues or diseases, such as cancer.

Gene Therapy

Gene therapy introduces or inserts genes into cells to treat or correct a genetic defect that causes disease or a specific genetic characteristic. This includes certain types of immunotherapy, like treatments that introduce gene-modified T cells to treat cancer.


Generalizability is the extent to which the findings of a clinical study of a limited population of participants relate to the broader patient population and a broader range of clinical settings.

Generic Name

A generic name is a medicine's actual name used by the entire medical community, which is in contrast to the various marketing names companies might give a medicine. For example, Prilosec is a marketing name that the company AstraZeneca gave to the heartburn medicine omeprazole, which is its generic name.

Genetic Study

Genetic studies are clinical studies that attempt to better understand how genes can cause or influence diseases, so as to develop new and more effective diagnostics and treatments.

Genetic Testing

Genetic testing looks for changes in a person's DNA that can inform medical care. (CDC)

Good Clinical Practices (GCP)

Good clinical practices are guidelines from the International Council for Harmonization that set standards for conducting research involving humans. The goal is ensure that investigators, sub investigators, and those involved in managing clinical studies are properly informing and protecting research participants and ensuring the integrity of the data gathered and reported. (CITI)


This is a group or subgroup of participants in a clinical study that receives a specific treatment, or no treatment, according to the study's design.